affective disorder

Depression may be caused by a combination of physiological, personality and circumstancial factors (which may precipitate the condition, such as early or recent stress and the inablilty to cope with such). 

Major depressive disorder

Depression may be caused by physiological, personality and circumstancial factors (which may precipitate the condition, such as early or recent stress and the inability to cope with such).
Symptoms that have occured for at least two weeks include experiencing a depressed mood and loss of interest in daily activities, which makes it difficult to function. This may be accompanied by feeling sad and empty, tearfulness, lack of enjoyment in previous interests, sleeping more or less than usual, having less energy and changes in dietary habits, worthless and guilty feelings, concentration problems and possible thoughts of suicide.

Combined pharmacotherapy (more so in serious cases) and psychotherapy, is used to treat this condition.

Depression is treated by first establishing goals for therapy.  The therapist will help you decide,  without telling you what to do.  One of the first things would be to encourage you to gradually get back to your activities and social situations.  Thereafter thoughts that may be contributing to your mood will be identified and balanced.  If necessary,  relationships that may contribute to your depression, will be addressed.8 


  • Adult

Breaking free from depression (Wright)

The cognitive behavioural workbook for depression (Knaus)

Getting your life back (Wright & Basco)

Defeating depression (Law)

Learned optimism (Seligman)

Mind over mood (Greenberger & Padesky) 

Overcoming depression (Martell & Addis) 

  • Adolescent

Conquering the beast within (Irwin)

The people you meet in real life (Hopely)

When nothing matters anymore (Cobain)

Adolescent Mental Health Initiative Books (Oxford University Press) 

Think Good - Feel Good, a CBT workbook for children and young people (Stallard) 


Dysthymia is characterized by a chronic despondent mood for at least two years, but is less intense than major depression.

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