Genetics play an important role in the susceptibility hereof. It is often related to other psychiatric and interpersonal problems.
Signs of abuse include neglecting responsibilities, being intoxicated in dangerous situations, legal problems due to use and interpersonal problems that stem therefrom. Dependence is a more serious form hereof and includes continued use despite negative consequences, increased tolerance and withdrawal symptoms.
The individual’s motivation to change and social support is essential for this treatment.
Controlling your drinking (Miller)
Get your loved one sober (Meyers & Wolfe)
The wisdom to know the difference (Wilson)